- Active substance: Testosterone Cypionate
- Type: Anabolic steroid (Testosterone derivative)
- Form: Injections
Carrier oil: Sesame oil
Testosterone is the primary sex hormone in humans, playing a crucial role in the development of male and female reproductive tissues, including the testes, prostate, and secondary sexual characteristics. It contributes to increased muscle and bone mass, body hair growth in males, and is important for overall well-being. Inadequate testosterone levels in men can lead to issues like frailty and bone loss. Testosterone exhibits significant anabolic properties, promoting muscle mass, protein synthesis, glycogen supply to muscles, and aiding in recovery. It governs numerous processes in the body and is an essential hormone used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for age-related hypogonadism in elderly individuals and as a foundation for steroid cycles in athletes.
Mechanism of action
Testosterone binds to androgen receptors and serves as a precursor to dihydrotestosterone, a biologically active androgen. Dihydrotestosterone, derived from testosterone via the enzyme 5α-reduction, exhibits five times greater affinity to androgen receptors. These hormones interact with receptors, causing structural changes and transmitting signals to the cell nucleus. Androgenic effects are realized through the alteration of specific DNA genes. Testosterone can also convert to estrogen through the process of aromatization. Estrogens, rather than testosterone, predominantly activate feedback in the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis, leading to the suppression of endogenous testosterone secretion during exogenous drug administration.
Testosterone is listed among the essential medicines by the World Health Organization due to its critical role in basic healthcare. It is utilized for the treatment of gender dysphoria, male hypogonadism, and certain types of breast cancer. Maintaining normal testosterone levels is important for overall health and quality of life, especially in aging men. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is employed to address age-related testosterone decline. Testosterone deficiency has been associated with cognitive decline and possibly dementia. It also contributes to the prevention of osteoporosis in both sexes. Adult men with age-related low testosterone levels and sexual dysfunction can benefit from testosterone treatment.
Testosterone for Seniors
Men over 35 who experience a decline in well-being are often advised to test their testosterone levels. If levels fall below 12 nmol/l, hormone replacement therapy is recommended. This decision offers various benefits. Body composition improves with increased muscle mass and decreased fat. Sexual function experiences a rejuvenation, providing a certain anti-aging effect. However, regular medical monitoring is essential. Lipid profile, clinical blood parameters, estradiol levels, and prolactin levels should be monitored. It's worth noting that natural gonadotropin production significantly decreases with HRT, so special therapy with gonadotropins may be necessary for those desiring offspring. Dosage selection for testosterone therapy should be guided by a healthcare professional and based on individual factors such as normal testosterone levels, current levels, body weight, body fat percentage, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and aromatization process.
Typical dosages for replacement therapy are much lower than those used by athletes, ranging from 50-200 mg per week.
Testosterone in Sports
The primary advantage of testosterone in sports is its ability to increase muscle mass and strength. It exhibits both anabolic and androgenic effects. Testosterone interacts with androgen receptors (AR) within cells, activating AR proteins that enter the nucleus and bind to DNA, thereby influencing gene expression.
Rapid weight gain associated with testosterone use is often attributed to water retention caused by sodium retention and estrogenic effects. However, testosterone is not the preferred choice for treating joint problems, pain, or crunching in the shoulders and knees. Nandrolone and growth hormone are typically more suitable. Testosterone stimulates the body's regeneration processes, increases overall energy levels and exercise motivation, and prevents overtraining. It enhances oxygen-carrying capacity and promotes nitric oxide production, resulting in a satisfying pump during training sessions.
In sports, recommended dosages range from 250-500 mg per week, with adjustments based on body weight. Testosterone cycles usually last 8-10 weeks, followed by post-cycle therapy after 2-3 weeks. Some athletes may use testosterone for longer durations, although exceeding a dosage of 2000 mg per week is considered unnecessary and increases the risk of side effects.
To mitigate estrogenic side effects resulting from aromatization, regular tests and the use of aromatase inhibitors are highly advisable. Monitoring estradiol levels and adjusting the aromatase inhibitor dosage accordingly is optimal. However, it is crucial to entrust dosage selection to professionals. The information below is provided for reference purposes only.
- Beginner: 250 mg per week
- Average dosage: 300-750 mg per week
- High dosage: 750+ mg per week
- Increased muscle mass
- Development of male genital organs and secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., deep voice, facial hair, male-pattern hair growth)
- Promotes spermatogenesis and male behavioral traits (sexual, aggressiveness, resoluteness)
- Burning fat
- Increase in strength
- Elevated libido
- Reduction of blood cholesterol levels
- Lower risk of heart ischemia and coronary heart disease
- Stimulation of erythropoiesis and redistribution of subcutaneous fatty tissue in a male-like pattern
- Influence on nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism
- Increased blood pressure
- Heightened sexual behavior
- Hemoconcentration (increased blood clotting)
- Potential risk of blood clots in arterial and venous vessels
- Water retention (edema)
- Masculinization effects
- Aggression, agitation, irritability
- Alopecia (scalp baldness)
- Insomnia (rare)